Safe zones in volar portals for wrist arthroscopy, evaluation of central portal : a cadaveric study


wrist arthroscopy ; volar portals ; volar approach

Published online: Nov 03 2019

Georgios Antonoglou , Georgios Paraskevas , Panagiotis Kanavaros , Aristeidis Vrettakos , Alexandra Barbouti , Panagiotis Kitsoulis

From University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece


The purpose of this cadaveric study is to determine safe zones utilizing volar portals for wrist arthroscopy, by quantitatively describing the neurovascular relationships of a volar radial and a volar ulnar wrist arthroscopy portals in comparison with those of a newly described volar central portal (7) , considering the advantages in visualization of volar portals for wrist arthroscopy over the standard dorsal (19) . The neurovascular structures and the tendons of nine frozen human cadaveric upper limbs were exposed, while the aforementioned volar portal sites were pointed out with pins. The horizontal distance between the portals and the closest neurovascular branch or tendon was measured with a digital caliper, followed by statistical analysis of the data. The median interquartile range distances from portals to structures at risk were measured and safe zones around each portal were established. This study provides a safe approach to the volar radial and ulnar aspects of the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints, while volar radial and ulnar portals should be considered for inclusion in the arthroscopic examination of any patient with radial and ulnar sided wrist pain respectively (17,18) . Regarding the volar central portal, it is reproducible, safe and both the above joints can be inspected through one single incision (7) .