Tranexamic acid in total knee replacement which protocol? which application form? A prospective randomised study


Knee ; total knee arthroplasty ; prospective ; tranexamic acid ; bleeding ; allogenic blood transfusion ; systemic tranexamic acid ; local tranexamic acid ; oral tranexamic acid.

Published online: Dec 31 2019

?smail Gökhan ?ahin, Yavuz Akalin, Nazan Çevik, Ali Otuzbir, Yüksel Özkan, Alpaslan Öztürk

From the University of Health Sciences, Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Y?ld?r?m, Bursa, Turkey


The aim of this study was to prospectively compare different delivery forms, doses and combined application forms of TXA for the reduction of blood loss and prevention of the allogeneic blood transfusion in patients with TKA and evaluate the results. The study included patients with knee joint osteoarthritis who were unresponsive to conservative management and 168 patients met the inclusion criteria. They were divided into 5 groups randomly as, Control (1), Local (2), Systemic+short infusion (3), Systemic+long infusion (4) and Systemic+oral TXA (5). When compared with the Control group, blood loss was significantly reduced in Groups 2, 3 and 4 (p=0.001, 0.001, 0.003) but not in Group 5. Twenty- four hour drainage output was lower in all treatment groups (p=0.001, 0.001, 0.001, 0.004). Although TXA groups had no difference in terms of blood loss, 24- hour drainage outputs of the local TXA group were less than Group 4 and 5 and it yielded similar amounts in comparison with group 3. It was determined that TXA use whether local or systemic gave rise to decreased blood loss and prevent allogeneic blood transfusion. But, regarding the results above, local TXA seemed to have favorable effects when compared with systemic+long infusion and systemic+oral TXA usage, whereas local use had similar results with systemic+short infusion. Additionally, there found no difference between systemic+short, systemic+long infusion and systemic+oral combined TXA usage with respect to blood loss, transfusion rates and drain follow-up. We recommend further prospective randomized controlled studies to make clear these differences. Systemic+oral combined TXA use have promising results when compared with other systemic multiple deliveries.