Investigation of the changing etiology and risk factors of prosthetic joint infections : a university hospital surveillance study from 2011-2017


arthroplasty ; prosthetic joint infections ; microbial etiology ; case-control

Published online: May 29 2020

Gülay Okay, Sibel Bolukcu, Bülent Durdu, Bilge Sumbul Gultepe, ?brahim Tuncay, Meliha Meric Koc

From the Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Medicine, ?stanbul, Turkey


We sought to characterize the causative pathogens of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), evaluate the trends in microbial etiologies, and identify potential risk factors for PJI. This was a retrospective study analyzing 70 patients with PJI following 3,253 total joint arthroplasties between 2011 and 2017. Staphylococci were the most common cause of infection (52.9%). There was a significant trend in the percentage of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB) (increased to 66.7% in 2016 from 0.0% in 2011) (p=0.021). GNB and polymicrobial etiology were found at significantly high levels in cases involving early PJIs (p=0.005 and p=0.048, respectively). While staphylococci were significantly higher in PJIs after total knee arthroplasty (75%), GNB were significantly higher in PJIs after total hip arthroplasty (49.1%) (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of PJI was significantly higher in cases with fracture and diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-10.5 ; OR, 4.1, 95% CI, 1.66-10.5, respectively). These results suggest that the empirical and targeted antimicrobial treatment of PJIs may become more difficult in the future.